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  1. #1

    Lightbulb Aerated Compost Tea (ACT)

    Aerated Compost Tea (ACT)
    http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/~Linda%2...ea%20again.pdf

    http://ofrf.org/funded/reports/kelley_03f18.pdf



    Starr Farms - It's About Family, Pumpkins and a Lot More

    http://www.soilace.com/pdf/pon2004/5.Scheuerell.pdf

    Vermicompost Teas
    Suppress Parasitic Nematodes and Arthropod Pests.
    (hint: aphids and spider mites are arthropod pests)

    http://www.puyallup.wsu.edu/~Linda%2...%20tea%204.pdf

    Aerated Compost tea is a liquid solution or suspension made by steeping compost in water. It is used as both a fertilizer and in attempts to prevent plant diseases.

    ]Mode of action

    The biology of the tea and its effect in the plant phyllosphere are complex. The tea may be rapidly deactivated when foliar applied due to sunlight, rain and especially UV radiation. However, on the soil surface, the microbes in the tea will colonize plant litter and debris, and improve decay rates. Vineyards in the Alsace region of Germany and France reported significantly reduced fungal spore counts in the spring, after applying compost extracts - prepared in the European fashion - directly to the litter layer in the prior fall.[citation needed] Successful colonization, competition to foodstuffs, antibiotic effects, and systemic effects, all belong to the arcana of possible biochemical mechanisms that make compost teas potentially biologically active materials.
    ]General preparation

    Compost tea is made by steeping compost in water for a variable period (up to 5 days), then applying the liquid undiluted as a spray to non-edible plant parts, or as a soil-drench (root dip), such as to seedlings, or as a surface spray to reduce incidence of harmful phytopathogenic fungi in the phyllosphere.[2] Compost tea can be made at home[3] using DIY automated compost tea machines. Compost tea brewing barrels are also available commercially.[4]
    ]Types

    There are several kinds of compost tea, depending on the method and ingredients with which the tea is made. In Europe compost teas are largely distinguished on the basis of whether or not they have manure content, the latter preferred for having more consistent disease suppressive capabilities.
    [edit]Anaerobic compost teas
    These consist of controlled compost extracts made by adding finished, properly prepared compost to water and stirring the mix for 1 – 14 days. This process encourages the loosening of microbes adhering to compost and soil particles so they are transferred into the water itself. The notion that compost tea is a "brew" process is of only recent origin in the USA. Traditional compost tea (called compost extracts) developed in Europe and especially in Germany by microbial scientists from the late 1970s on, did not employ significant technological support to prepare solutions of compost with microbial counts as high as 1011 per ml. The mixing, or active aeration, was required after the introduction in the USA of molasses, sugars and other highly fermentable agents created fermenting, anaerobic conditions; as a direct result, it became necessary to take extra steps to maintain compost teas in an aerobic condition, to be safe and non-odorous. If the tea is properly made, it is a mixed concentrate of facultative and aerobic microbes, and presumed non-harmful. The US National Organic Program has strict guidelines on use of compost teas in USDA certified organic farming; research evaluated by a Tea Task Force did not support the idea that active vs non-active teas had any differences in terms of microbial hygiene, and therefore the need to protect the safety of organic consumers and the integrity of organic farming became necessary. For example, E. coli testing of compost extracts is strongly recommended and may be required under NOP; the levels should be less than 126 cfu ml-1.
    Traditional European formula: Steep 1 part compost in 3 to 9 parts water, with optional additions of a handful of basalt-meal, granite-dust, lime, lithothamnium or seaweed powder, and stand at room temperature (20 - 25°C) for 3 – 24 days, with frequent stirring. Sieve through cheesecloth or a fine mesh screen. This is sometimes known as a maceration.
    ]Aerobic compost tea (ACT)
    The use of air pumps or blowers to aerate or brew compost tea. A compost of high quality is added to aerated water at the rate from 1:4.[5] The water must have a sustained dissolved oxygen content of 6 ppm or higher to be able to support aerobic organisms and be considered an aerobic tea. Water may be warmed slightly but cooler water supports higher dissolved oxygen rates. By aerating the water the extraction and growth of beneficial bacteria, protozoa and fungi that were present in the tea is promoted. Teas are aerated from 12 to 48 hours depending what type of microbes are desired. A short brew of around 12 hours will favor the growth of fungi, while a 24 hour brew will favor the growth of bacteria and a long brew of 36–48 hours will favor the growth of protozoa. Some farmers will add small amounts of supplements that promote growth of these microbes. Molasses will promote the growth of bacteria while kelp and humic acid will promote the growth of fungi. Sometimes sphagnum peat moss or hay is added as a source of protozoa. After brewing is complete ACT should be applied to the field as soon as possible to ensure that the tea is applied to the soil when the microbes are most active. ACT is applied to the soil to boost populations of biology and increase the rate of biological activity in the soil. Sometimes ACT is sprayed on leaves as a disease preventative but the effectiveness of this application is debatable. It is important to use unchlorinated or dechlorinated water when making ACT, since chlorine will kill beneficial microbes.
    ]Other teas

    ]Compost leachate

    Compost "leachate" is the liquid that drains out of compost when it is overly-moist (i.e., at or above saturation). In Europe and North America, environmental agencies have shown concern for the leachate from compost facilities, as it escapes to surface water. Leachate carries a large quantity of dissolved organic matter, bacteria, and potassium ions. As such, it is not a compost tea nor should be used as such, largely because it may represent the result of overly-wet and potentially anaerobic conditions.
    Compost leachate is produced when water or humidity runs through a saturated compost heap. The liquid consists mainly of enzymes, hormones and soluble nutrients extracted from the compost. This leachate boosts plant growth by "building" the soil's structure, raising the percentage of nutrients in the soil and improving its water-retention capacity.
    ]Manure tea
    This type of "tea" occurs in the early literature in some very early pre-WWII variants of organic farming, and is not known to be an actual practice. On farms with urine drainage systems, manure will produce a form of manure tea which can become anaerobic, but is popularly used as "slurry fertilizer", in Germany Gǖlle. Using raw manure is potentially more risky as there are more viable forms of pathogenic organisms present, so the land application must be practiced more carefully. However, the majority of the world still uses manure in a raw and semi-liquid states and it has proven safe when properly managed within farming systems.
    ]Bokashi tea
    Made by soaking bokashi in water, or by using bokashi instead of compost in an aerobic compost tea.
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  3. #2

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    Aerated Compost Tea:
    Aerated Compost Tea (ACT) can be defined as being a water extract of the mineral and nutrient components of good quality compost and any supplementary foodstuffs which may have been added, and which has been aerated in order to maintain the necessary aerobic conditions for the multiplication of the beneficial microorganisms that are resident on such compost

    Title: Variability Associated with Suppression of Gray Mold (Botrytis cinerea) on Geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) by Foliar Applications of Non-Aerated and Aerated Compost Teas

    Authors
    Scheuerell, Steve - OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY
    Mahaffee, Walter
    Submitted to: Plant Disease
    Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
    Publication Acceptance Date: December 12, 2005
    Publication Date: August 15, 2006
    Citation: Scheuerell, S., Mahaffee, W.F. 2006. Variability associated with suppression of gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) on geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) by foliar applications of non-aerated and aerated compost teas. Plant Disease. 90:1201-1208.
    Interpretive Summary: This research was conducted to examine the use of compost tea for control of leaf diseases using gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) of geranium as a model system. Numerous compost tea production parameters were manipulated to increase the consistency of disease suppression, including compost source, stirring, aeration, nutrient additives, production duration, and applying finished compost tea with spray adjuvants. For non-aerated compost tea (NCT), the most consistent disease suppression was associated with particular compost batches and increasing the production time to 14 days. Continuously aerating compost tea did not significantly (P < 0.05) increase disease suppression compared to non-aerated compost teas. As with non-aerated compost teas, preparing aerated compost tea (ACT) with nutrient additives did not increase disease suppression. However, the addition of spray adjuvants to aerated compost teas just prior to application significantly increased disease suppression. These data indicate that compost teas made from certain batches of compost can suppress gray mold of geranium; however, disease suppression across all sources and production methods is inconsistent.
    Technical Abstract: Compost teas were shown to significantly reduce leaf infection severity on geranium caused by Botrytis cinerea under environmental conditions that are extremely favorable for disease development. However, the majority of compost teas did not significantly suppress B. cinerea infection of geranium. Numerous compost tea production parameters were manipulated to increase the consistency of disease suppression, including compost source, stirring, aeration, nutrient additives, production duration, and applying finished compost tea with spray adjuvants. For non-aerated compost tea (NCT), the most consistent, significant (P < 0.05) disease suppression was associated with particular compost batches and increasing the production time to 14 days. Applying compost tea removed from the surface of open production containers compared to deeper liquid had a consistent positive, but not significant (P < 0.1) effect. Periodic stirring or adding nutrients at the onset of production to increase microbial populations had little effect. Continuously aerating compost tea did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase disease suppression compared to non-aerated compost teas. Preparing aerated compost tea (ACT) with nutrient additives did not significantly (P > 0.05) increase disease suppression. Applying ACT with spray adjuvants significantly (P < 0.05) increased disease suppression. These data indicate that compost teas made from certain batches of compost can suppress gray mold of geranium, however, disease suppression across all sources and production methods is inconsistent.
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